Thermal water treatment processes are widely used today in various branches of industry. Besides simple heating these processes include, for example, distillation, sterilization and rectification (thermal material separation). The advantage of these methods is that the technologies are often relatively simple and of robust design. Thermal energy supply can generally be achieved without great technical efforts by means of direct firing, process vapor, or electric heating.
On the other hand, thermal treatment methods are mostly energy-intensive. New technical solutions are necessary to ensure a responsible use of energy resources and to offset the increasing cost pressure.