The receptors of the innate immune system recognize conserved molecular patterns of infectious agents, but also isolated chemical structures, and are called Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). Stimulation of these receptors leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines via the activation of different signaling cascades and transcription factors, thus playing an important role in the development of pathological processes in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. Among the PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the largest and most well-known family.
Therapeutic approach – Agonists and antagonists of immune receptors
Therefore, agonists and antagonists are a new therapeutic approach for immunotherapy via immunomodulators. Receptor agonists stimulate the innate immune system and are often used as drug adjuvants, while antagonists inhibit inflammatory processes. The possible indications range from allergies, infections and tumors to autoimmune diseases.